Not Everyone Predisposed to Celiac Disease Develops It

OCTOBER 11, 2016
Rachel Lutz
gastroenterology, Gastroenterologists, gut microbiome, gut, microbiota, celiac disease, celiac, gluten, gluten freeThe type of gut bacteria present in the microbiome could be the difference between developing and not developing celiac disease, according to findings published in Gastroenterology.

Researchers from McMaster University in Ontario used mice models in order to investigate gluten metabolism in patients. The researchers elaborated, saying that the partially degraded gluten peptides from cereals trigger celiac disease, though susceptibility genes are necessary but not enough to induce celiac disease alone. There are additional environmental factors that are required in order to trigger celiac disease onset.

The study authors determined that while about 40 percent of the population have a genetic disposition to celiac disease, just about 1 percent develop the condition upon exposure to gluten. Mice who housed Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (Psa) in their guts – transplanted from celiac patients – metabolized gluten different than mice treated with the probiotic Lactobacillus.

The researchers further observed that Psa produced gluten sequences that initiated inflammation in celiac patients. Lactobacillus was used to detoxify the gluten.

"So the type of bacteria that we have in our gut contributes to the digestion of gluten, and the way this digestion is performed could increase or decrease the chances of developing celiac disease in a person with genetic risk,” senior study author Dr. Elena Verdu explained in a press release. “Celiac disease is caused by gluten in genetically predisposed people, but bacteria in our gut could tip the balance in some people between developing the disease or staying healthy."

Some of the current literature about celiac disease indicates that environmental factors may impact the onset and disease course, the statement continued. But these findings based on mice models may contribute to better understanding of the onset.

"We may be closer to understanding the way gut bacteria and opportunistic pathogens such as Psa could affect celiac disease risk. This will help us develop strategies to prevent these disorders, but more research is needed," said Verdu.

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